Now that we’ve got that covered, let’s look deeper into a very cool feature – the ability to customize the instance and automate its startup and configuration. For example, at instance creation time you can specify a snappy application to be installed. cloud-init is what allows you to do this, and it is installed inside the Snappy image. cloud-init receives this information from the user in the form of ‘user-data’.
One of the formats that can be fed to cloud-init is called ‘cloud-config’. cloud-config is yaml formatted data that is interpreted and acted on by cloud-init. For Snappy, we’ve added a couple specific configuration values. Those are included under the top level ‘snappy’.
When running inside snappy, cloud-init still provides many of the features it provides on traditional instances. Some useful configuration entries:
Some cloud-init config modules are simply not going to work. For example, traditional packages will not be installed by ‘apt’ as the root filesystem is read-only.
Its always easiest to start from a working example. Below is one that demonstrates the usage of the config options listed above. Please note that user data intended to be consumed as cloud-config must contain the first line ‘#cloud-config‘.
– content: |
echo “==== Hello Snappy! It is now $(date -R) ====”
– /writable/greet | tee /run/hello.log
Follow yesterday’s blog post to get a functional tool. Then, save the example config file above to a file, and launch you’re instance with it.
$ uvt-kvm create –wait –add-user-data=my-config.yaml snappy1 release=devel
Our user-data instructed cloud-init to do a number of different things. First, it wrote a file via ‘write_files’ to a writable space on disk, and then executed that file with ‘runcmd’. Lets verify that was done:
$ uvt-kvm ssh snappy1 cat /run/hello.log
==== Hello Snappy! It is now Thu, 11 Dec 2014 18:16:34 +0000 ====
It also instructed cloud-init to install the Snappy ‘xkcd-webserver’ application.
$ uvt-kvm ssh snappy1 snappy versions
Part Tag Installed Available Fingerprint Active
ubuntu-core edge 141 – 7f068cb4fa876c *
xkcd-webserver edge 0.3.1 – 3a9152b8bff494 *
There we can see that xkcd-webserver was installed, lets check that it is running:
$ uvt-kvm ip snappy1
$ wget -O – –quiet http://192.168.122.80/ | grep <title>
The same user-data listed above also works on Microsoft Azure. Follow the instructions for setting up the azure command line tools, and then launch the instance with and provide the ‘–custom-data‘ flag. A full command line might look like:
$ azure vm create snappy-test $imgid ubuntu \
–location “North Europe” –no-ssh-password \
–ssh-cert ~/.ssh/azure_pub.pem –ssh \
Have fun playing with cloud-init!
From home control to drones, robots and industrial systems, Ubuntu Core and Snaps provide robust security, app stores and reliable updates for all your IoT devices.
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